DigitalNC: North Carolina's Digital Heritage

Digitization Guidelines

Digitization Philosophy

The Digital Heritage Center digitizes materials for the purpose of facilitating online viewing and research. Our intention is not to create a high fidelity replica suitable for replacing the original, but rather to allow users to view and search a quality representation of the item on their computers and mobile devices. We also provide optical character recognition where possible, to increase access through full-text search.

Scanning Specifications

These scanning specifications were chosen to accommodate our digitization philosophy while also adhering to commonly accepted imaging best practices, particularly those developed by the Federal Agencies Digitization Guidelines Initiative.

Item Type PPI Hardware Example Item
Photographs 400-600 Epson Expression 10000XL Classmates in Albemarle
Negatives or Slides 1200-1600 Epson Expression 10000XL Horse-Drawn Carriage in Parade
Fragile Looseleaf or Bound Items 400 Zeutschel Copy of Robert E. Lee’s Farewell Address
Very Fragile and/or Oversized Items 300 minimum PhaseOne The Full Moon
Uniform and Sturdy Looseleaf 300 Fujitsu Sheetfed Scanner Hickory Library Business Vertical Files
Bound and Sturdy Publications 300-450 Internet Archive Scribe Book Scanner Lamp and Shield
3-D Objects 300 minimum Nikon Digital Camera Child’s Doll

We contract to digitize microfilm off site. Contact us for more details about this process.

File Formats We Use

  • TIFFs for original scans
  • JPEG2000 and PDF for access files

Digitization Overview

  • Receive and unpackage materials
  • Assess for condition issues, presence of metadata
  • Separate out materials by format and/or subject matter
  • Decide which hardware to use for digitization
  • Calibrate hardware
  • Digitize materials
  • Review images and apply minimal image rotation if necessary
  • Run images through OCR (optical character recognition) software if appropriate
  • Create image metadata in spreadsheet
  • Upload images and metadata to CONTENTdm
  • Publish to digitalnc.org
  • Re-package and return materials

Description of Scanning Practices

Digital Heritage Center materials are digitized in the Digital Production Center (DPC) in Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Here are photos and details about many of the scanners and cameras used.

Staff use the following best practices when scanning materials:

  • Handling
    • Items are handled as little as possible and are stored in secure locations when not in use.
    • Bound materials are opened gently and scanned lying flat. Props and book cradles are used when necessary.
    • Glass is used to flatten pages only when it poses no danger to the materials and does not inhibit image quality.
    • Unless requested by the owning institution, paper materials are handled with bare hands to facilitate dexterity. Photographs, slides, negatives, and museum objects are handled with cotton gloves.
    • To avoid shadows in the gutter for bound items being shot with digital cameras, the volumes may be turned perpendicular to the light source.
  • Hardware Calibration
    • Monitors are calibrated for color consistency.
    • When using digital cameras, the hardware is calibrated based on the size and type of object. This calibration is specific to the type of hardware.
    • Targets are used to ensure color fidelity and accurate focus for each item captured.
  • What We Usually Skip
    • Blank pages
    • The backs of documents and photos if there is no unique or helpful content
    • Spines of bound objects
  • About Scrapbooks
    • We unfold and scan unique multi-page items that are inside of scrapbooks (like small pamphlets or booklets)
    • When scanning multi-page items inside of a scrapbook, we scan the entire scrapbook page each time to maintain context.
    • Items in enclosures are carefully removed for scanning if no damage will result.
    • We do not lift or remove the plastic page protectors that adhere to scrapbook pages.
    • Scrapbooks bound by posts are sometimes disassembled, if doing so provides a better scan and/or gentler handling, and if no damage will result.
  • Color – We scan in color, using the sRGB colorspace.

Image Manipulation

Following digitization best practices, we do minimal manual image manipulation.

  • No “touchups,” intensive color correction, dust or scratch cleanup
  • Images may be deskewed or rotated
  • Images are cropped to leave a small, uniform border of space around each item.

Image Description

Items are described using three sources of information:

  • Written information directly on the original item
  • Information provided by the owning institution
  • Information that can be gleaned from looking at the original item

We use a metadata dictionary and several broadly adopted metadata authorities to help ensure consistency across our item descriptions.

CONTENTdm and Digital Publishing

The Digital Heritage Center uses two mechanisms for publishing digital content to digitalnc.org: CONTENTdm and the Internet Archive.

CONTENTdm, a product of OCLC, is digital collection management software. It allows us to describe and organize digital images, metadata, and full text to be presented at digitalnc.org. Items are grouped into the following collections:

  • North Carolina Yearbooks – includes yearbooks and other campus publications, including catalogs, creative writing annuals, and magazines
  • North Carolina Images – includes photographic materials
  • North Carolina Memory – includes a wide variety of content, with the exception of yearbooks and newspapers
  • North Carolina Newspapers and Individual Newspaper Collections – includes local, corporate, and school newspapers
  • Individual North Carolina City Directories Collections – includes local directories, grouped by county
  • Durham Urban Renewal Records – a discrete collection of images that document Durham’s plans for urban development in the 1960s and 1970s.

Items scanned and hosted by the Internet Archive are featured in CONTENTdm using the Internet Archive’s BookReader.

The Digital Heritage Center routinely publishes select images to social media sites like Twitter and Facebook. We also use Flickr as a way to draw attention to interesting themes or topics in our materials. See our Social Media Policy for more information.

Files and Storage

Images are given intelligent identifiers – names that give some sense of what the item is about and/or where it’s from. Files are stored in directories named after the item’s owning institution, on servers supported by the UNC-Chapel Hill Libraries.

Project and Workflow Management

Multiple staff members are involved in digitization and digital publishing at the Digital Heritage Center. We have found Trello to be a great tool for managing workflows.

Spreadsheets and documentation on Google Drive allow us to share information and to track project progress.